Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)

First Advisor

Efleda Preclaro Tolentino


Since the 1900s, the United States has become more diverse due to an increase in the number of languages spoken across the continent due in part to the rise in immigration from different countries. This has altered the structure of schools and led to a greater need for classroom supports in the area of language development. Specifically, the English as a New Language (ENL) teachers have become a more prominent figure in the schools and classrooms by providing support for students whose first language is not English. There are many positive outcomes and challenges that arise in the schools for teachers who work with ENL students’ population. Therefore, the purpose of my study was to better understand common views of the challenges elementary ENL teachers encounter while working with English Language Learners. This was done using the mixed-methods approach known as Q-Methodology which identified three shared viewpoints of 55 ENL teachers who work in the New York schools. The three perceived challenge (Q Models) were (1) a need for protocols and guidelines; (2) a struggle with collaboration and co-teaching; and (3) a lack of time to accomplish tasks. These models were supported by the salient Q statements as well as qualitative responses from participants. Additionally, demographic responses were also outlined for each Q Model. The findings of this study can help reform the structures of the schools, influence new policy reforms, and encourage better models for ENL programs.