Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Education (EdD)



First Advisor

Louisa Kramer Vida


Using qualitative phenomenography, this research highlights the perception of a sample of NYC teachers towards data driven practices, i.e., formative use of summative assessment in an RTI model. Eighteen elementary and middle school teachers participated in the study. From the analysis of the interviews, five categories of differences occurred, i.e., (a) teachers’ awareness of RTI; (b) teachers’ use of evidence-based assessment strategies; (c) teachers apply universal screening measures and progress monitoring; (d) teachers’ self-efficacy towards data driven intervention practices; and (e) support for and training about intervention practices. The results are depicted in an outcome space that describes the relationships among the categories in hierarchical order. Teachers do not seem to know that when various research-based interventions are administered, the results provide a systematic image of students’ performances that allow for a more student-centered classroom that meets the needs of all learners.

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