Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Psychology (PsyD)



First Advisor

Orly Calderon, Psy.D.

Second Advisor

Marc Diener, Ph.D.

Third Advisor

Or Dagan, Ph.D.


Insecure attachment style to primary caregivers has consistently been linked with greater vulnerability to adverse mental health outcomes (Mikulincer & Shaver, 2007). Insecure attachment style to God is also associated with deleterious mental health outcomes (Bishop, 2008; Knabb & Pelletier, 2014; Rowatt & Kirkpatrick, 2002; Freeze & DiTommaso, 2014; Wei et al., 2012), but little is known about the mechanism that underlies this relationship. This study examines hope as a psychological strength that mediates the associations between attachment to God and depression, anxiety, and life satisfaction. The study was conducted through an anonymous online survey, surveying individuals above the age of 18 (N=612). The results of this study supported our hypothesis that hope mediates the effects of attachment anxiety and avoidance to God on anxiety, depression, and life satisfaction. Further, these results were found to be significant irrespective of participants’ attachment style to their mother or their level of religiosity. Hope is therefore an important target for intervention for secular and religious individuals who endorse a belief in God to counteract attachment-driven feelings of insecurity with God.