Date of Award


Document Type


Degree Name

Doctor of Philosophy (PhD)

First Advisor

Dr. Qiping Zhang

Second Advisor

Dr. Shahid Siddiqi

Third Advisor

Dr. David Jank


The Hajj pilgrimage is an annual global event in Saudi Arabia. It draws millions of pilgrims worldwide because of its religious significance as the fifth pillar of Islam. Its organization is a massive endeavor for the Saudi government. This research analyzes the Hajj-related E-Government service systems (websites and mobile apps). This research utilizes a multi-attribute evaluative framework to address two areas of Hajj E-Government services: usability (RQ1) and interaction with the services (RQ2). A combination of heuristic evaluation and survey methods was used. The heuristic evaluation by three expert evaluators revealed accessibility, interactivity, and functional issues. Users with disabilities or limited digital literacy faced challenges, while the system was ineffective in providing feedback. Functionality issues included confusing menu structures, inconsistent labeling, and unclear search results. Privacy and security concerns were addressed, but presentation issues hindered optimal use. The survey study with 138 pilgrims found that Hajj pilgrims have an overall positive user experience and acceptance of E-Government services despite moderate satisfaction. The top three most important Hajj services were the accuracy of information, the ability to overcome challenges, and guidance throughout the journey. These findings suggest that the government can improve E-Government services for Hajj pilgrims by making them more user-friendly and accessible, providing more training and support resources, improving usability through detailed instructions, and continually addressing technical issues by evaluation